This is the EMF Channel database of light therapy study doses. After getting the results, click to view more study details. Only successful studies are included. 99% of the studies here are on humans, not animals. This database is a work in progress. Many thanks to Vlad for his PBM database. When the data here references his work, the detail page includes a link to the PBM spreadsheet.
Phototherapy with blue (415 nm) and red (660 nm) light in the treatment of acne vulgaris
Subjects received a monochromatic 415 nm blue treatment, or a polychromatic 415 nm and 660 nm treatment. Groups 3 and 4 received cool white light and 5% benzyl peroxide. Patients treated themselves 1x/day for 15 minutes for 12 weeks. At weeks 4 and 8, the red and red-blue groups achieved similar lesion reductions. At week 12, the blue-red group had significantly better results than blue alone. The blue-red group had a 76% inflammatory lesion reduction, significantly higher than the blue light, white light, and benzyl peroxide treatment.
In cataloguing this study, the “cool white light” is classified as having “unknown” wavelengths.
Combination blue (415 nm) and red (633 nm) LED phototherapy in the treatment of mild to severe acne vulgaris
24 mild to severe acne patients with Fitzpatrick skin types II-V received 415 nm blue at one session alternating with 633 nm red at the next. Schedule was 2x/week, 3 days apart, 20 min. per session, 48 J/cm^2 415 nm or 96 J/cm^2 633 nm. All subjects had mild microabrasions before treatment. 22 patients were assessed, 2 dropped out. Researchers objectively counted a 46% lesion count reduction at 4 weeks, and an 81% lesion count reduction at 12 weeks.
FLUORESCENT LIGHT ENERGY: The Future for Treating Inflammatory Skin Conditions?
Photodynamic Light Therapy
When applied with a topical substance, light therapy becomes photodynamic therapy (PDT). Kleresca is a photodynamic therapy treatment manufacturer based in Europe and Australia.
Kleresca marketing refers to this process as biophotonics. In home LED therapy, the chromophores in the mitochondria absorb the photons to create an ATP and nitric oxide response. In PDT, the topical substance absorbs the photons. Then, the substance is potentiated to heal, or the absorption transfers photon energy to the skin. In this case, it appears that the chromophore gel is a mediator to get more photons to the skin.
This study looked at the Kleresca chromophore gel’s light absorption properties.
Researchers tested gel penetration of fluorescent light energy (FLE) of 375 nm, 405 nm, 435 nm, 450 nm, 470 nm, 505 nm, 525 nm, 570 nm, 590 nm, 630 nm, 645 nm, 660 nm, 700 nm, 850 nm, 870 nm, 890 nm, 940 nm and 970 nm.
They tested the reflection and absorption qualities of the gel with each color. They found that 375 nm had the highest reflectance. 405 nm through 590 nm had the highest absorption. 630 nm through 970 nm had less but still significant absorption. In other words, at least 5 wavelengths between 405 nm and 590 nm deeply penetrate the chromophore gel; at least nine red and infrared wavelengths significantly penetrate the gel. 375 nm is a high reflectance outlier. The gel maintained fluorescence for up to 15 minutes after exposure.
The fluorescent Kleresca lamp output similar irradiance to an LED analogue. Irradiance for both lamps peaked at just under 10 mW/cm^2 and 435 nm. Irradiance was lowest at 500 nm to 550 nm at .01 mW/cm^2 (LED) and .001 mW/cm^2 (Kleresca). Lamps peaked output again at 570 nm at just under .1 mW/cm^2 and plummeted back to 0.001 between 630 nm and 700 nm.
Authors tested Kleresca PDT on one acne patient. Inflammation reduction peaked at week 20 and corresponded with significant lesion reduction. More acne resolution occurred from week 21 to week 57 with visible reductions at week 33, week 45 and week 57.
A third test compared fibroblast collagen production under LED and Kleresca. Kleresca produced more collagen compared to LED in untreated skin. In part 2 of the collagen test, researchers added interferon inflammatory markers to the fibroblast cells. LED collagen production remained consistent, but FLE dramatically fell below LED results. In the presence of inflammatory marker, LED produced the same collagen, and FLE produced significantly less collagen.
In a confusing statement of conflict, the authors state that they Kleresca employees, but that Kleresca did not fund the study, and there are no conflicts of interest.
A Comparative Study Between Once-Weekly and Alternating Twice-Weekly Regimen Using Blue (470 nm) and Red (640 nm) Light Combination LED Phototherapy for Moderate-to-Severe Acne Vulgaris
Both groups had moderate to severe acne. All subjects received 470 nm blue and 640 nm red light therapy treatments. Group 1 received treatment two times per week for four weeks. At the first weekly session, they received one color treatment. At the second weekly session they received the other color treatment. Group 2 received treatment one time per week. At this session, they first received one color, then they received the second color. Group 1 treatment was spread across two days. Group 2 treatment was delivered in one day. Both groups had significant lesion count reduction, and were not significantly different from one another. Both regimens had significant results.
Low-fluence 585 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: a novel laser treatment for post-acne erythema
Green light reduced acne lesions by 67% when measured at 6 weeks past the end of the study.
Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring
Increase lymphatic system activity correlated:
- reduced wrinkles
- reduced hyperpigmentation
- enhanced rejuvenation (glow)
- increased collagen
- decreased acne
Blue and red light combination LED phototherapy for acne vulgaris in patients with skin phototype IV
Blue and red LED light treatments reduced inflammatory acne by 34% and non inflammatory acne by 78%. In addition, melanin decreased significantly, tone brightened, and texture improved.
Red light phototherapy alone is effective for acne vulgaris: randomized, single-blinded clinical trial
Treatment of acne vulgaris with a portable 630 nm to 670 nm portable LED device resulted in reduced inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesion counts.
Handheld LED array device in the treatment of acne vulgaris
415 combined with 633, 21 subjects, self administered handheld device over 4 weeks. Reduced lesion counts throughout study and 8 weeks post therapy, 69% reduction at 8 weeks
Non-invasive diagnostic evaluation of phototherapeutic effects of red light phototherapy of acne vulgaris
Decreased acne lesions, decreased skin sebum excretion in women at end of treatment and 3 month followup. Study used multiple wavelengths in the red range.
A study to determine the effect of combination blue (415 nm) and near-infrared (830 nm) light-emitting diode (LED) therapy for moderate acne vulgaris
Alternating 415 nm and 830 nm at each session reduced inflammatory acne lesions up to 83.3%. Non inflammatory lesions improved an average of 48.8%, but four patients had an increase. There were no side effects.
Comparison of Red and Infrared Low-level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris
10 weeks after last treatment, group treated with 630 nm light had significant reduction in moderate acne. The 890 nm group did not have a significant reduction.
The clinical and histological effect of home‐use, combination blue–red LED phototherapy for mild‐to‐moderate acne vulgaris in Korean patients: a double‐blind, randomized controlled trial
Red and blue light two to five minute sessions for four weeks resulte in:
- inflammatory acne lesions reduced by 77%n
- oninflammatory acne lesions decreased by 54%
- reduced sebum output
- reduced inflammatory markers
- decreased sebaceous gland size
- no side effects
Home consumer red and blue LED device reduced acne lesions, sebum output, inflammatory markers and sebaceous gland size in Korean patients, with no side effects.
Randomized trial of three phototherapy methods for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Chinese patients
90% or greater acne reduction at one month using blue LED therapy on the face of Chinese patients. Some redness after treatment resolving in 2h. After 3 months, 12 of 22 patients had minimal papules and pustules, “but no nodular pustules recurred.”
Clinical comparison of salicylic acid peel and LED-Laser phototherapy for the treatment of Acne vulgaris in teenagers.
Blue and red light facial and back therapy immediately improved acne symptom better than salicylic acid treatment . “The number of comedones, papules and pustules decreased significantly at the end of the session.”
About the EMF Channel Light Dose Database
Many people purchase red light therapy or neuromuscular electrical stimulation devices without knowing optimal doses for the results they want to see. The right dose is especially key to light therapies, which have optimal windows of wavelength and energy delivered. Treatment doses outside of those windows will nullify results or harm the user. I took the results from successful EMF studies when these studies included:
- Photobiomodulation (Red Light Therapy, Blue Light Therapy, Low Level Light Therapy)
- Transcutaneous Electromagnetic Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
- Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Therapy
- Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES)
Many studies do not report exact dose parameters they used. They are therefore not included here, even the study reported a therapeutic result.
Source: Turchin, Curtis. Light and Laser Therapy: Clinical Procedures 6th Edition (p. 16)