Which frequency is larger: 1,500 MHz or 1.6 GHz? If you compare two therapy devices with these frequencies, would your eyes glaze over converting megahertz into gigahertz? I want to accurately understand and convey the healing and harmful effects of EMFs. I wrote this guide to help everyone speak the same EMF language.
Use these instructions to convert frequencies and wavelengths into comparable values. Use these frequency examples to visualize frequencies and make them more intuitive. Then, you will be able to compare Red Light Therapy, Pulsed EMF, cell phones, and every other electromagnetic field source. Understand EMF frequencies and wavelengths to make the right therapy and protection choices.
Why There Are Different EMF Spectrum Band Names
Below are two graphics of the EMF Spectrum. The first is from Howard University, and the second is from NASA.
They do not appear to be describing the same things. They are breaking up the EMF spectrum into different buckets. This is one of the difficulties of understanding EMFs. Although the frequencies and wavelengths are the same, the descriptions of them are different.
Astronomy, telephony, photobiology, and other sciences use the spectrum differently. Each science gives the bands within the spectrum different names. Our concern is with light therapy and telephone safety. We will use EMF spectrum bands that logically describe these areas of EMFs.
Why Wavelengths are Expressed as Nanometers and as Powers of Ten
We see two different wavelength qualifiers at the Howard U EMF spectrum. Visible light wavelengths are in nanometers, and nonvisible EMF wavelengths are in negative powers of ten.
Visible Band Nanometer Wavelengths
This graphic gives us EMF wavelengths in nanometers. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter. The graphic gives the other wavelengths in negative powers of ten meters. How do we compare a 700 nm red frequency wavelength with a 10^5 infrared wavelength?
NonVisible Band Exponential Wavelengths
The red wavelength is 700 nm long, or 700 billionths of a meter. It isn’t easy to compare 700 nm to a power of ten. I want to compare 700 nm to 10^5, but I cannot visualize 10^5. Let’s turn it into nanometers.
Just as you use an exponent to express many zeros to the left of the decimal point, you use a negative exponent to express zeros to the right. When you see a negative exponent, you look at a fraction of whatever you measure. In this case, a fraction of a meter.
Here is a shortcut to compare nanometers to nanometers. Convert the negative power of ten to a decimal and multiply that result by a billion.
Multiply by a billion to get the fraction in nanometers.
Why are we multiplying by a billion? Because our comparison is to a nanometer, which is a billionth of a meter. If we wanted to compare our result to a centimeter (centi=100), we would multiply our result by one hundred.
Convert 10^5 Meters to Nanometers
To convert a negative power of ten to a decimal, use this shortcut:
 Start with zero and a decimal:
 Reverse the negative exponent to a positive value: N
 Subtract 1 from that result: N1
 Use this new result to be the number of zeros to the right of the decimal point: (N1 zeros)
 Add a 1 at the end: 0.(N1 zeros)1
To convert 10^5 Meters to Nanometers:
 Start with zero and a decimal:
 Reverse the negative exponent to a positive value: 5
 Subtract 1 from the previous answer: 4
 Add the new result to be the number of zeros to the right of the decimal: 0000
 Add a 1 and the end: 00001
 Multiply by a billion: 10,000
 10^5 meters is 10,000 nanometers
Once you see the pattern, it is easy to convert a negative power of ten to a decimal.
To Convert 10^1 Meters to Nanometers:
 start with
 reverse exponent: 1
 subtract 1: 0
 Add zero zeros to the right of the decimal:
 Add a one at the end: 1
 Multiply by a billion: 100,000,000
 10^1 meters is one hundred million nm
To Convert 10^2 Meters to Nanometers:
 start with
 reverse exponent: 2
 subtract 1: 1
 Add one zero to the right of the decimal: 0
 Add a one at the end: 01
 Multiply by a billion: 10,000,000
 10^2 meters is 10 million nanometers
Why Frequencies are in Hz and in Powers of Ten
Look at the frequencies in our EMF spectrum graphic. Gamma is 10^20 Hz. Radio is 10^8 Hz. How do we read these numbers?
In Which EMF Band is the 5G Network?
To place 5G in the EMF spectrum,, find 10 billion Hz and 100 billion Hz on the graph.
The 5G network operates at 28 GHz and 39 GHz.
I’m sure that they are somewhere in the 10^8 to 10^20 frequencies in the EMF spectrum. But where?
In Which EMF Band is Your Wireless Router?
Your wireless router probably runs at 2.4 GHz (update July 2024: It’s probably 5 GHz now; I wrote this a few years ago).
I do not know where 2.4 Ghz is on the EMF spectrum that ranges from 10^8 to 10^20. The graphic expresses frequencies in exponents. We need normal values.
To place 2.4 GHz in the EMF spectrum, find 1 billion and 10 billion on the EMF graph.
Use an Order of Magnitude Prefix
The Hertz shorthand prefixes make it easy to discuss large numbers in a shorthand way. Each new prefix is one order of magnitude higher than the previous one. A kHz is one thousand times greater than a Hz. A MHz is one thousand times greater than a kHz.
 a Hertz (Hz) is one cycle per second
 a kilohertz (kHz) is a thousand cycles per second
 1 megahertz (MHz) is a million cycles per second
 1 gigahertz (GHz) is a billion cycles per second
 1 terahertz (THz) is a trillion cycles per second
 1 petahertz (PHz) is a quadrillion cycles per second
Convert an Exponent Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
To convert an exponent Hertz to a prefix Hertz:
 Calculate the exponent
 Find the closest order of magnitude for the result, one that is equal to or less than the result but not greater
 Divide the result by the order of magnitude
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result
Example: Convert 10^3 Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
 calculate the exponent: 10^3 is 10 x 10 (100) x 10 (1,000): 1,000
 find the prefix that matches the order of magnitude: kilo (1,000)
 divide the result (1,000) by the order of magnitude (1,000): 1
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result: 1 kHz
 10^3 Hertz is 1 kHz
10^3 Hz is 1 kHz
Example: Convert 10^4 Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
 calculate the exponent: 10^4 is 10 x 10 (100) x 10 (1,000) x 10 (10,000): 10,000
 find the prefix that matches the order of magnitude: kilo (1,000)
 divide the result (10,000) by the order of magnitude (1,000): 10
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result: 10 kHz
10^4 is 10 kHz
Example: Convert 10^5 Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
 calculate the exponent: 10^5 is 10 x 10 (100) x 10 (1,000) x 10 (10,000) x 10 (100,000): 100,000
 find the prefix that matches the order of magnitude: kilo (1,000)
 divide the result (100,000) by the order of magnitude (1,000): 100
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result: 100 kHz
10^5 is 100 kHz
Example: Convert 10^6 Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
 calculate the exponent: 10^6 is 10 x 10 (100) x 10 (1,000) x 10 (10,000) x 10 (100,000) x 10 (1,000,000): 1,000,000
 find the prefix that matches the order of magnitude: mega (1,000,000)
 divide the result (1,000,000) by the order of magnitude (1,000,000,): 1
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result: 1 MHz
10^6 is 1 MHz
Example: Convert 10^7 Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
 calculate the exponent: 10^7 is 10 x 10 (100) x 10 (1,000) x 10 (10,000) x 10 (100,000) x 10 (1,000,000) x 10 (10,000,000): 10,000,000
 find the prefix that matches the order of magnitude: mega (1,000,000)
 divide the result (10,000,000) by the order of magnitude (1,000,000,): 10
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result: 10 MHz
10^7 Hz is 10 MHz
Example: Convert 10^8 Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
 calculate the exponent: 10^8 is 10 x 10 (100) x 10 (1,000) x 10 (10,000) x 10 (100,000) x 10 (1,000,000) x 10 (10,000,000) x 10 (100,000,000): 100,000,000
 find the prefix that matches the order of magnitude: mega (1,000,000)
 divide the result (100,000,000) by the order of magnitude (1,000,000,): 100
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result: 100 MHz
10^8 Hz is 100 MHz
Example: Convert 10^9 Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
 calculate the exponent: 10^9 is 10 x 10 (100) x 10 (1,000) x 10 (10,000) x 10 (100,000) x 10 (1,000,000) x 10 (10,000,000) x 10 (100,000,000) x 10 (1,000,000,000): 1,000,000,000
 find the prefix that matches the order of magnitude: giga (1,000,000,000)
 divide the result (1,000,000,000) by the order of magnitude (1,000,000,000,): 1
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result: 1 GHz
10^9 Hz is 1 GHz
Example: Convert 10^10 Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
 calculate the exponent: 10^9 is 10 x 10 (100) x 10 (1,000) x 10 (10,000) x 10 (100,000) x 10 (1,000,000) x 10 (10,000,000) x 10 (100,000,000) x 10 (1,000,000,000) x 10 (10,000,000,000: 10,000,000,000
 find the prefix that matches the order of magnitude: giga (1,000,000,000)
 divide the result (10,000,000,000) by the order of magnitude (1,000,000,000,000): 10
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result: 10 GHz
10^10 Hz is 10 GHz
2.4 GHz is between 10^9 Hz and 10^10 Hz
Now we know where 2.4 GHz is in the EMF spectrum. 10 to the ninth is 1 GHz. 10 to the tenth is 10 GHz. Our router frequency is 2.4 GHz. The router is in the range between 10^9 and 10^10. Look at the graphic. 2.4 GHz is in the Microwave band of the EMF Spectrum.
A 2.4 GHz router emits electromagnetic frequencies between 1 and 10 billion, or 1 GHz and 10 GHz, or 10^9 Hz and 10^10 Hz.
Example: Convert 10^11 Hertz to a Prefix Hertz
 calculate the exponent: 10^9 is 10 x 10 (100) x 10 (1,000) x 10 (10,000) x 10 (100,000) x 10 (1,000,000) x 10 (10,000,000) x 10 (100,000,000) x 10 (1,000,000,000) x 10 (10,000,000,000) x 10 (100,000,000,000): 100,000,000,000
 find the prefix that matches the order of magnitude: giga (1,000,000,000)
 divide the result (10,000,000,000) by the order of magnitude (1,000,000,000,): 10
 Add the order of magnitude Hz prefix after the result: 100 GHz
10^11 Hz is 100 GHz
28 GHz and 39 GHz are between 10^10 Hz and 10^11 Hz
Now we know where 5G frequencies are in the EMF spectrum. They are between 10 GHz and 100 GHz. Therefore, they are between 10^10 and 10^11 Hertz in the spectrum.
5G emits frequencies at 28 GHz and 39 GHz. These are between 10 billion and 100 billion Hz, or between 10 Ghz and 100 GHz, or between 10^10 Hz and 10^11 Hz.
Find the Radio Spectrum
Another problem you will encounter is understanding the EMF spectrum: different sciences divide EM into different categories. Based on the Howard University EMF spectrum graphic above, we calculated that 2.4 GHz had to be in the microwave spectrum. Where is 5 GHz on this NASA EMF Spectrum graphic?
You do not need to transform the exponents. Look between 1 GHz and 10 GHz. Which range is this? It’s the Super High Frequency (SHF) EMF range. Why is this not the microwave range? That graph is from NASA, which uses different measurements for astronomy. Because EMF Channel is concerned with telecommunication devices, we use the EMF Spectrum broken up for telephony and light therapy devices.
You can call 2.4 GHz a “super high frequency,” which will confuse the issue. Notice that in the NASA graphic, the “Radio Spectrum” is between 1 kHz and 100 GHz. In the Howard U. graphic, the Radio Spectrum is about 10^6 and 10^10 (1 MHz to 10 GHz).
Sadly, you cannot depend on EMF spectrum diagrams to give you the EMF picture. Use the frequencies, wavelengths, and energies to study light and phone devices, but not the EMF spectrum band names.
What Happens in the Electromagnetic Spectrum
We cannot depend on the EMF spectrum band names, so how do we understand what happens in the electromagnetic field world? Now, we will look at examples of what you find at various frequencies. The hope is to make the EMF spectrum more intuitive.
Did you know that the Earth has an electromagnetic frequency? It is also one of the human brainwaves.
American electricity transmits at 60 Hz. Our brains, the earth, and fabricated electric transmissions all operate within 60 Hz (at most) of one another. Both cell phones and longdistance landtosubmarine communications use frequencies in the kilohertz range. The thousandhertz range contains popular communication frequencies.
Quadrillion and quintillionfrequency waves are so powerful that they knock electrons out of orbit. These “ionizing” frequencies knock electrons out of biological DNA, causing illness and death.
From this Frequency  To this Frequency  Example EMFs in this Range 
0 Hz  0 Hz  
0.3 Hz  300 Hz 

1 Hz  4 Hz  
3 Hz  30 Hz  
3 Hz  60 Hz  
4 Hz  8 Hz  
7.83 Hz  7.83 Hz  
8 Hz  13 Hz  
12 Hz  30 Hz 

30 Hz  100 Hz  
30 Hz  300 Hz  Super Low Frequency (SLF) radio waves 
60 Hz  60 Hz  
300 Hz  3 kHz  Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) radio waves 
3 kHz  30 kHz  
30 kHz  300 GHz  
24.8 kHz  24.8 kHz  
30 kHz  300 kHz  
30 kHz  300 GHz  
300 kHz  3 MHz  
2.8 MHz  10 MHz  High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) 
3 MHz  30 MHz  
30 MHz  300 MHz  
88 MHz  108 MHz  
300 MHz  3 GHz  
600 MHz  600 MHz  Verizon 4G LTE cellular networks 
700 MHz  2.5 GHz  Verizon 5G cellular networks 
850 MHz  850 MHz  1G and 2G cellular networks 
902 MHz  908 MHz  
1 GHz  30 GHz  
1.7 GHz  1.7 GHz  4G LTE cellular networks 
1.9 GHz  1.9 GHz  1G and 2G cellular networks 
2.1 GHz  2.1 GHz  Verizon 4G LTE cellular networks 
2.3 GHz  2.3 GHz  Verizon 4G LTE cellular networks 
2.4 GHz  2.4 GHz  
2.4 GHz  2.4385  
2.45 GHz  2.45 GHz  
2.5 GHz  2.5 GHz  Verizon 4G LTE cellular networks 
3 GHz  30 Ghz  
39 GHz  39 GHz  Verizon 5G cellular networks 
300 GHz  3 THz  
0.3 THz  20 THz  
30 THz  37 THz  
37 THz  100 THz  
100 THz  214 Thz  
214 THz  400 THz  
300 THz  3 PHz  
384 THz  468 THz  780 nm  640 nm 
468 THz  500 THz  640 nm  600 nm 
500 THz  526 THz  600 nm  570 nm 
526 THz  612 THz  570 nm  490 nm 
612 THz  697 THz  490 nm  430 nm 
697 THz  789 THz  430 nm  380 nm 
789 THz  300 PHz  380 nm  1 nm 
300 PHz  30 EHz  1 nm  10 pm 
30 EHz  Infinity 